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Urinary Stone : Disease Information & Treatments  
 
   
 

Overview

Hardened mineral deposits formed in the kidney are called kidney stones (calculi). These originate as microscopic particles and over the course of time develop into stones. Medically this condition is known as nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease. The kidneys filter waste products from the blood and adds them to the urine. When waste materials in the urine do not dissolve completely and the kidney is unable to evacuate them, crystals and kidney stones are likely to form. Some stones may pass out of the kidney or get lodged in the ureter (tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder), and cause severe pain that starts from the lower back and radiates to the side or groin. A lodged stone can block the flow of urine and build a backpressure in the affected ureter and kidney. Increased pressure results in stretching and spasm, which cause severe pain.

Signs & Symptoms

Small and smooth kidney stones may remain in the kidney or pass without causing pain (called “silent” stones). Stones that lodge in the ureter (tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder) cause the urinary system to spasm and produce pain. The pain is unrelated to the size of the stone

Other symptoms of kidney stones may include the following:
  1. Blood in the urine
  2. Increased frequency of urination
  3. Nausea and vomiting
  4. Pain and burning during urination
  5. Fever, chills, loss of appetite
  6. Urinary tract infection

 

Diagnosis

Laboratory Tests:

  1. Complete Blood Count
  2. Kidney Function Test
  3. Urine Routine & Microscopy
Ultrasound:
Whole Abdomen with Kidney, Ureter & Bladder:
  1. Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
  2. X-Ray KUB

Treatment

5Extracorporeal shock wave Lithotrispy (ESWL)

Extracorporeal shock wave Lithotrispy (ESWL) uses highly focused electro magnetic waves projected from outside the body to crush kidney stones anywhere in the urinary system. The stone usually is reduced to sand-like particles that can be passed in the patient's urine. Large stones may require more than one ESWL sessions. The procedure should not be done for pregnant women. It can be used for patients of all age groups and those who have heart and breathing problems. ESWL by 4th generation “SIEMENS LITHOTRIPTOR” with Ultrasound attachment helps to treat even Radioluscent stones, which are not visible in normal fluoroscopy Lithotriptors.

Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy (URS) Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) This minimal invasive procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Percutaneous (i.e., through the skin) removal of kidney stones (lithotomy) is accomplished through the most direct route . A telescope along with mechanical lithotriptor in inserted to break stone into fine particles to achieve stone-free status in large and complicated stones. This procedure usually requires hospitalization, and most patients resume normal activity within 2 weeks.

Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy (URS) Ureteroscopic Lithotrispy with Holmium Laser - This procedure is performed under Epidural and Spinal Anaesthesia to treat stones located in the middle and lower ureter. A small, fiberoptic instrument (ureteroscope) is passed into the ureter. Large stones are fragmented using 100-Watts Coherent Holmium Laser. The laser fragments stone into sand like particles, which are then flushed out through the natural urinary passage. The advantage of Holmium Laser is its ability to fragment stones of all compositions and precision. Thus, it is the most effective laser for the treatment of ureteric stones. Patients are generally admitted the same day of the treatment and are discharged next day, which means only 24 hours hospitalization.

   

 

 
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